# Centrality

### `algo(closeness)`

Closeness centrality (or closeness) of a node is the reciprocal of sum of its distances (length of the shortest path) to all the other nodes within its connected component in the graphset. By this definition, the more central a node is in the graph, the closer it is to the other nodes, the samller the aforementioned sum of distances, and the bigger the reciprocal.

Closeness was first defined by American psychosociologist Alex Bavelas in 1950 as the reciprocal of the farness: Obviously, the formula above would make the eventual C(x) too small to be meaningful, and with Ultipa graph it is normalized by multiplying k-1, which stands for the number of nodes excluding the subject node, and C(x) will always carry a value from 0 to 1: Closeness centrality is a shortest-path-based algorithm that its computational complexity grows exponentially as the graphset gets larger. Ultipa Graph provides accurate closeness centrality calculation for graphsets with less than 10k nodes and edges. For cases of larger graphsets, the calculation is approximated by sampling, with a sample number which is the base-10 logarithm of total number of nodes `log(total_node_number)`.

Configuration items for closeness centrality operation:

Item Data Type Specification Description
`<ids>` []int Ultipa ID (Optional) To calculate for a group of nodes, or calculate for all nodes if not configured
`<limit>` int >0; -1 The maximum number of results to return; -1: return all the results

Validity of `write_back()`:

Not supported.

Example: Calculate the closeness of nodes (_id=1,2,3)

``````algo(closeness).params({ ids: [1,2,3], limit: -1 })
``````

Run this example to a graph with below structure: Figure: Running Real-Time Algorithm – Closeness Centrality

And acquire below result: Figure: Running Real-Time Algorithm – Closeness Centrality

### `algo(out_closeness)`

Out-Closeness Centrality is out-degree closeness centrality. The difference between closeness and out-closeness is that during the shortest-path calculation, out-closeness only calculates paths form by out-degree (right-directing) edges.

Configuration items for out-degree closeness centrality operation:

Item Data Type Specification Description
`<ids>` []int Ultipa ID (Optional) To calculate forf a group of nodes, or calculate for all nodes if not configured
`<limit>` int >0; -1 The maximum number of results to return; -1: return all the results

Validity of `write_back()`:

Not supported.

Example: Calculate out-closeness of nodes (_id=1,2,3)

``````algo(out_closeness).params({ ids: [1,2,3], limit: -1 })
``````

Run this example to the previous graph and get below result: Figure: Out Closeness for a Certain Node

### `algo(in_closeness)`

In Closeness Centrality is short for In-degree Close Centrality, similar to closeness centrality except that it only calculates in-degree-edge (left-directing) formed paths from the subject node.

Configuration items for in-degree closeness centrality operation:

Item Data Type Specification Description
`<ids>` []int Ultipa ID (Optional) To calculate for a group of nodes, or calculate for all nodes if not configured
`<limit>` int >0; -1 The maximum number of results to return; -1: return all the results

Validity of `write_back()`:

Not supported.

Example: Calculate the In-closeness of nodes id=(_id=1,2,3)

``````algo(in_closeness).params({ ids: [1,2,3], limit: -1 })
``````

Run this example to the previous graph and get below result: Figure: In_Closeness_Centrality for a Specific Node

### `algo(graph_centrality)`

Graph centrality of a node is the reciprocal of its longest distance (length of the shortest-path) to all the other nodes within the connected component. It also produces a value between 0 and 1, and can be expressed as below: In network analysis, graph centrality is used to identify the most important node in the graph, such as the most influential persons in a social network, the super-spreaders of CoVID-19, etc.

Configuration items for graph centrality operation:

Item Data Type Specification Description
`<node_id>` int Ultipa ID To calculate for a specific node

Validity of `write_back()`:

Not supported.

Example: Calculate graph centrality of node _id=1

``````algo(graph_centrality).params({ node_id: 1 })
``````

Run this example to the previous graph and get below result: Figure: Centrality Calculation for a Node (by _id)

Note that the graph centrality works against the entire connected component, the example above has a graph that has only 1 connected component, therefore the computational complexity is equivalent to finding out the largest K-hop of the subject node and inverse it. In the above example, the largest K-hop for node 1 is 2-hop (namely, any queries greater than 2-hop will get zero result), therefore 1/2=0.5 is the graph centrality for node 1.

### `algo(betweenness_centrality)`

Betweenness centrality of a node represents how frequently the node appears in the shortest paths between each pair of other nodes in its connected component. Betweenness centrality of a node x is given by the below expression: Where the denominator σ is the total number of shortest paths from node i to node j, and the numerator σ(x) is the number of those paths passing through node x. The summation of σ(x)/σ is normalized by dividing (k-1)(k-2)/2, which is the combination number of node pairs. Obviously, betweenness centrality is a value from 0 to 1.

Betweenness centrality finds wide applications in network theory, for instance, in a telco-network, a node with high(er) betweenness centrality would have more control over the network.

In highly connected graphs, betweenness centrality against the entire graph tends to consume lots of computational resources and is very time-consuming, especially on graphs larger than 100K nodes and edges. Betweenness centrality by Ultipa Graph is approximated by sampling, with a sample number which is the base-10 logarithm of total number of nodes `log(total_node_number)`. Fluctuation is observable in the calculation result of a same subject node and will decrease as the graphset grows larger.

In case you need to do an accurate calculation of betweenness centrality, contact our team.

Configuration item for betweenness centrality operation:

Item Data Type Specification Description
`<limit>` int >0; -1 The maximum number of results to return; -1: return all the results

Validity of `write_back()`:

Approach Destination
To database node property `#betweenness_centrality`
To disk file /

Example1: Calculate graph-wide betweenness centrality

``````algo(betweenness_centrality)
.params({ limit: -1 })
.write_back()
``````

Run this example against a graphset with over 400k nodes and 3-million edges, and check the written-back results in the node property `#betweenness_centrality`: Figure: Betweenness Centrality Writes Back